Dear Justice League, dear justice league comic, Justice League, Michael Northrop, gustavo duarte, middle grade, middle grade comics, middle grade graphic novels, comics for kids, good comics for kids, graphic novels for kids, good graphic novels for kids, young readers, all ages comics, good all ages comics, Batman, Superman, wonder woman, The Flash, Green Lantern, hawkgirl, cyborg, Aquaman, dc zoom, dc kids, ashley v. robinson
The Golden Age Wonder Woman had strength that was comparable to the Golden Age Superman. Wonder Woman was capable of bench pressing 15,000 pounds even before she had received her bracelets, and later hoisted a 50,000 pound boulder above her head to inspire Amazons facing the test.[169] Even when her super strength was temporarily nullified, she still had enough mortal strength of an Amazon to break down a prison door to save Steve Trevor.[170] In one of her earliest appearances, she is shown running easily at 60 mph (97 km/h), and later jumps from a building[clarification needed] and lands on the balls of her feet.[171]
The I Ching era had an influence on the 1974 Wonder Woman TV movie featuring Cathy Lee Crosby, in which Wonder Woman was portrayed as a non-superpowered globe-trotting super-spy who wore an amalgam of the Wonder Woman and Diana Prince costumes. The first two issues of Allan Heinberg's run (Wonder Woman vol. 3, #1–2) include direct references to I Ching, and feature Diana wearing an outfit similar to that which she wore during the I Ching era.[9]
Wonder Woman's outfit has varied over time, although almost all of her outfit incarnations have retained some form of chestplate, subligaculum, tiara, bracelets, and her signature five-pointed star symbols. When Wonder Woman was first introduced, she wore a heavily patriotic skirt and red top which incorporated an American eagle and elements of the United States flag, reflecting the comic's origins during World War II. Later artists introduced what would become Wonder Woman's classic ensemble, adding an armored plate to her top whose design recalls a letter W and revealing blue short shorts, whose precise length varied from artist to artist. Other artists have experimented with different looks for Wonder Woman over the years, including an all-white mod jumpsuit, a biker outfit, a variation of her mainstream depiction featuring leather pants and a jacket, and a number of armoured battlesuits. Contemporary artists have attempted to emphasise Wonder Woman's traditional outfit as a red armored top with a blue gladiator skirt.

Their first adventure together as a serious couple involved a battle with Doomsday, a monster of Kryptonian legend.[57] Superman, already familiar to the monster, explained that Doomsday was sealed into a pocket dimension called the Phantom Zone. Seeking preparation against enemies that could match them in power, Wonder Woman asked Hephaestus to forge weapons for them.[58] Later, the Justice League intercepted the arrival of General Zod, another Kryptonian survivor. Superman gave him shelter in the Fortress of Solitude, but the couple discovered their relationship was now public knowledge.[59][60]
Marston introduced the idea to Gaines. Given the go-ahead, Marston developed Wonder Woman, whom he believed to be a model of that era's unconventional, liberated woman. Marston also drew inspiration from the bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, who lived with the couple in a polyamorous relationship.[22] Wonder Woman debuted in All Star Comics #8 (cover date Dec/Jan 1941/1942, released in October 1941),[23] scripted by Marston.
The most recent version of the character’s origin (since the new 52) has not yet been told in totality, but certain things are known. It has been revealed how the Amazons replenish their numbers (they do so by kidnapping sailors and using them for procreation before killing them) as well as the fact of Wonder Woman’s divine lineage. Despite the fact that Zeus is her father it does not necessarily remove other facts about her origin from canon (for instance the blessings of the gods) though it remains to be seen how or if this will be incorporated into the ongoing stories. In the Zero month of the new 52 in which DC was planning to tell the origins of the character from the new 52, the story for Diana focused on the fact that she had been trained by Ares when she was a teenager though she eventually rebelled against him. It is as of yet unclear how this factors into her new origin. When Diana first came to Man’s World she encountered a group attacking the Pentagon. Because of this she befriended Barbara Minerva who was working there on ancient antiquities and Barbara helped her acclimatize to Man’s World.
After taking on the mantle God of War after killing her mentor War. Diana have shown some new abilities. She can now telepathically communicate and control all soldiers on the planet since she is their greatest leader. She hasn't shown the ability, but as her predecessor was able to bring back dead soldiers to fight alongside him, she might be able to do so as well.
She also had an array of mental and psychic abilities, as corresponding to Marston's interest in parapsychology and metaphysics. Such an array included ESP, astral projection, telepathy (with or without the Mental Radio), mental control over the electricity in her body, the Amazonian ability to turn brain energy into muscle power, etc.[173] Wonder Woman first became immune to electric shocks after having her spirit stripped from her atoms by Dr. Psycho's Electro Atomizer; it was also discovered that she was unable to send a mental radio message without her body.[174]
Wonder Woman is suggested as being queer[247] or bisexual, as she and another Amazon, Io, had reciprocal feelings for each other.[248] Grant Morrison's 2016 comic Wonder Woman: Earth One, which exists parallel to the current DC comics Rebirth canon, Diana is depicted being kissed on her right cheek by a blonde woman who has put her left arm around Diana.[249]
The Silver Age format for comic books also did not generally favour a lot of story arcs, or at least, not memorable ones. In this period though the character did undergo some consistent changes as she battled a variety of common foes including Kobra, but the changed format gave her the ability to develop more as a character. The silver age stories of Wonder Woman can be broken into a few general arcs – the depowered stories (in the mod girl phase), undergoing tests to re-enter the Justice League of America, a golden age story about her work during the Second World War, her adventures as an astronaut for NASA, the hunt for Kobra, and eventually the return of Steve Trevor and the internal politics of working at the Pentagon. The most famous story which she was involved with at this time was “For the Man Who Has Everything”, a story focused on Superman, but also involving herself and Batman. The first major story arc which she was part of was Crisis on Infinite Earths, which also ended her silver age appearances.
In May 2017, early tracking had Wonder Woman opening with $65–75 million, and possibly as high as $105 million.[177][178][179][180][174] The film opened Friday, June 2, 2017, across 4,165 theaters and made $38.7 million on its opening day, including $3.7 million in IMAX. It was the biggest single-day gross for a woman-directed film, ahead of the $35.9 million opening Friday of Catherine Hardwicke's Twilight in 2008 and the biggest opening day for a woman-led comic book superhero film, ahead of Ghost in the Shell ($7 million).[181] This included $11 million it made from Thursday previews, also the best start for a film directed by a woman, surpassing Fifty Shades of Grey's $8.6 million which was directed by Sam Taylor-Johnson, and the third-biggest of the year, behind Beauty and the Beast and Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2. Of that, $1.5 million came from IMAX screenings.[182][183]

She also had an array of mental and psychic abilities, as corresponding to Marston's interest in parapsychology and metaphysics. Such an array included ESP, astral projection, telepathy (with or without the Mental Radio), mental control over the electricity in her body, the Amazonian ability to turn brain energy into muscle power, etc.[173] Wonder Woman first became immune to electric shocks after having her spirit stripped from her atoms by Dr. Psycho's Electro Atomizer; it was also discovered that she was unable to send a mental radio message without her body.[174]
"Gas was intended to win the war. On that much Wonder Woman is absolutely right." said David Hambling in Popular Mechanics.[223] Rachel Becker of The Verge stated that despite the scientific liberties of using a "hydrogen-based" chemical weapon as a plot device, the film succeeds in evoking real and horrifying history. "First off, mustard gas is such a horrible, terrifying weapon, it doesn't need to be made more potent. But if you were a chemist bent on raining destruction on the Allied forces, you wouldn't do it by replacing the sulfur atom in mustard gas with a hydrogen atom. You'd know that sulfur is the linchpin holding together this poisonous molecule."[224]
Pallas Athena, the goddess of wisdom and war, granted Diana great wisdom, intelligence, and military prowess. Athena's gift has enabled Diana to master over a dozen languages (including those of alien origin), multiple complex crafts, sciences and philosophies, as well as leadership, military strategy, and armed and unarmed combat. More recently, Athena bound her own eyesight to Diana's, granting her increased empathy.[182]
Wonder Woman's character was created during World War II; the character in the story was initially depicted fighting Axis military forces as well as an assortment of colorful supervillains, although over time her stories came to place greater emphasis on characters, deities, and monsters from Greek mythology. Many stories depicted Wonder Woman rescuing herself from bondage, which defeated the "damsels in distress" trope that was common in comics during the 1940s.[13][14] In the decades since her debut, Wonder Woman has gained a cast of enemies bent on eliminating the Amazon, including classic villains such as Ares, Cheetah, Doctor Poison, Circe, Doctor Psycho, and Giganta, along with more recent adversaries such as Veronica Cale and the First Born. Wonder Woman has also regularly appeared in comic books featuring the superhero teams Justice Society (from 1941) and Justice League (from 1960).[15]
The inspiration to give Diana bracelets came from the pair of bracelets worn by Olive Byrne, creator William Moulton Marston's research assistant and lover.[5] "Wonder Woman and her sister Amazons have to wear heavy bracelets to remind them of what happens to a girl when she lets a man conquer her," quoted Marston in a 1942 interview. "The Amazons once surrendered to the charm of some handsom Greeks and what a mess they got themselves into. The Greeks put them in chains of the Hitler type, beat them, and made them work like horses in the fields. Aphrodite, goddess of love, finally freed these unhappy girls. But she laid down the rule ("Aphrodite's Law") that they must never surrender to a man for any reason. I know of no better advice to give modern day women than this rule that Aphrodite gave the Amazon girls."[206]

Granted by Athena (Goddess of Wisdom), this gives her a degree of wisdom beyond that of most mortals and gives her a strong moral sense. Originally in the Golden Age, her wisdom primarily consisted of her deep knowledge of, and ability to navigate through, human emotions. When she first showed up in Man’s World, she learned enough English language to converse with others in a few hours only. This also aids her in her tactical ability. She is among the smartest and wisest members of the Justice League of America, along with the Martian Manhunter and Batman.

Voiced by Vanessa Marshall. A movie where an alternate version of Lex Luthor travels to the mainstream universe to ask the JLA for help regarding the alternate version of Lex's universe. The Crime Syndicate of America runs their world through intimidation and blackmailing the USA's president (Slade Wilson). Wonder Woman's counterpart is Superwoman, and she equals Wonder Woman in every way.


Following the popularity of the Wonder Woman TV series (initially set during World War II), the comic book was also transposed to this era.[15] The change was made possible by the multiverse concept, which maintained that the 1970s Wonder Woman and the original 1940s version existed in two separate yet parallel worlds. A few months after the TV series changed its setting to the 1970s, the comic book returned to the contemporary timeline. Soon after, when the series was written by Jack C. Harris, Steve (Howard) Trevor was killed off yet again.[9]

Membership Adam Strange · Agent Liberty · Amazing Man · Ambush Bug · Amethyst · Andrew Bennett · Antaeus · Animal Man · Atomica · August General in Iron · Azrael · Aztek · Batwing · Big Barda · Black Condor · Black Lightning · Black Orchid · Bloodwynd · Blue Beetle · Blue Devil · Blue Jay · Booster Gold · Bronze Tiger · Bulleteer · Captain Atom · Captain Cold · Captain Marvel · Catwoman · Congorilla · Creeper · Crimson Fox · Dark Flash · Deadman · Detective Chimp · Doctor Fate · Doctor Light · Doctor Mist · Donna Troy · Element Woman · Elongated Man · Enchantress · Equinox · Etrigan · Faith · Fire · Firehawk · Firestorm · Frankenstein · General Glory · Geo-Force · G'nort · Godiva · Guardian · Guy Gardner · Gypsy · Hourman · Huntress · Ice · Icemaiden · Jade · Jesse Quick · Jessica Cruz · John Constantine · John Stewart · Katana · Killer Frost · Kyle Rayner · Lex Luthor · Lightray · Lobo · L-Ron · Madame Xanadu · Major Disaster · Man-Bat · Manitou Raven · Maxima · Maya · Metamorpho · Mera · Mindwarp · Mister Miracle · Mon-El · Moon Maiden · Mystek · Nightmare Nurse · Nightwing · Nuklon · Obsidian · Olympian · O.M.A.C. · Oracle · Orion · Pandora · Phantom Stranger · Plastic Man · Power Girl · Ray · Red Arrow · Red Tornado · Rocket Red · Shade the Changing Man · Silver Sorceress · Simon Baz · Starfire · Stargirl · Starman · Steel · Steve Trevor · Swamp Thing · Super-Chief · Supergirl · Tasmanian Devil · Tattooed Man · Tomorrow Woman · Triumph · Vibe · Vixen · Zatanna · Zauriel


In 2010, Warner Bros. stated that a Wonder Woman film was in development, along with films based on DC Comics superheroes the Flash and Aquaman.[83] Both Wonder Woman and Aquaman were still under consideration for solo film subjects as of June 2013.[84] DC Entertainment president Diane Nelson said Wonder Woman "has been, since I started, one of the top three priorities for DC and for Warner Bros. We are still trying right now, but she's tricky."[85] On October 5, 2013, WB chairman and CEO Kevin Tsujihara said he wanted to get Wonder Woman in a film or on TV.[86] Shortly afterward, Paul Feig said he had pitched the studio an idea for Wonder Woman as an action-comedy film.[87][88] The studio then began to search for female directors to direct the film.[89] While Michelle MacLaren was the studio's initial choice to direct (and while she initially indicated interest),[90][91][92] she eventually left the project due to creative differences.[93]
Voiced by Michelle Monaghan. Based on the story ''Justice League Origins'', where Darkseid invades earth, only to fail due to its heroes. Wonder Woman is first seen with Steve Trevor, where she is supposed to meet the president of the United States, but he isn't there. After the Mother Boxes opens up boomtubes, she defeats multiple soldiers of Apokolips, but flies to Air Force One to protect the president. After battling some opponents, she meets Superman, and from there they proceed to meet other heroes. The battle and Superman gets knocked out and is about to be made a soldier by Desaad but Batman manages to save him in time. Wonder Woman then proceeds to battle Darkseid along with the rest of the Justice League, and succsessfully sends him back throug a boomtube.
The screenplay will be co-written by three people: Jenkins, Johns, and The Expendables writer Dave Callaham. Callaham’s involvement was revealed on Sept. 13, disappointing fans who hoped for another woman on the film’s core creative team. That being said, it seems that Callaham was personally recruited by Jenkins herself since they already worked together on a previous project.

The relaunch was beset by scheduling problems as described by Grady Hendrix in his article, "Out for Justice" in The New York Sun. "By 2007 [Heinberg had] only delivered four issues ... Ms. Picoult's five issues hemorrhaged readers ... and Amazons Attack!, a miniseries commissioned to fill a hole in the book's publishing schedule caused by Mr. Heinberg's delays, was reviled by fans who decried it as an abomination."[47] Picoult's interpretation received acclaim from critics, who would have liked to have seen the novelist given more time to work. Min Jin Lee of The Times stated, "By furnishing a 21st-century emotional characterization for a 20th-century creation, Picoult reveals the novelist's dextrous hand."[48]
Throughout Diana's childhood, she was training and sparring with her Amazonian sisters. One day when pilots were test flying, one of the pilots called Steve Trevor, has an accident with his plane, and Hippolyta opens Themyscira's shields and disguise, and Steve Trevor lands his plane on Paradise Island. Steve then proceeds to explore the island, and that's where he finds beautiful women bathing, but while staring at the women, Diana surprises him from behind and takes him out by kicking him in his testicles. Steve is then strapped up because of Hippolyta keeping him safe until someone proves worthy enough to escort him back to the USA. Wonder Woman while covered in a helmet, wins the challenges and gets to escort Steve back home, but while the challenges were going on, a traitor in the Amazons freed Ares because she loved him. Ares is free, and he goes to Hades so he could remove the bracelets blocking his powers.Throughout being in USA, Diana also tries to stop Ares' plans as Wonder Woman, but she fails the first time, and Ares gets ahold of the power he was searching for. After calling in his army, the US finds an island that appeared out of nowhere on the map, that being Paradise Island. They set off a nuke towards Paradise Island, and Steve manages to stop it, and at the same time, Wonder Woman defeats Ares with help from her Amazonian sisters. She realizes her feelings for Steve, and she kisses him, but when being back in Paradise Island, she looked sad. Hippolyta allowed her to operate in the outside world where she shared her feelings and her life with Steve.

An American pilot and the love interest of Diana.[21][22] On his role for the film, Pine said, "I am an American pilot who's a spy. It's like a boy's dream: You're either a spy or a fighter pilot. The first thing I wanted to be was a fighter pilot a long time ago. I wanted to be Goose [from Top Gun]".[15] As to how his mortal character would interact with an Amazon, Pine stated, "When I first read the script, it had elements of Romancing the Stone, kind of a very classic fish out of water. Two people that don't really bond well at first and they're butting heads and just fun, witty banter".[15] When speaking about meeting the director and being cast, Pine said, "Patty is a pretty incredible human being. When we first met about the part of Steve, she sat across from me and essentially acted out the entire film over the course of a two-hour lunch. She was so specific, so articulate, and so ardent. I would've said yes just for Patty alone."[23] Pine went through a workout regimen for the film, commenting, "I got in incredible shape for this film" but also joking "I was also wearing about 75 pounds of clothing. What I realized is that I made a major mistake, I got in great shape and they just put clothes over all my hard work."[24]
Unfortunately, not long after Diana left, Hera came for her vengeance, and though she could not bring herself to kill Hippolyta, she could not forgive her either. Feeling regret at giving up the only real family she had, Wonder Woman returned to Themyscira to find the Amazons absent, and her mother turned to stone.[17] Shortly after, Wonder Woman encountered Lennox, a man who claimed to be another of Zeus' bastard children. After learning that Zeus has gone missing, they confronted the Gods of Olympus, Poseidon and Hades, in order to prevent them from taking over Zeus’ throne.[18] To prevent a war between gods, Diana proposed that the two brothers share Heaven with one ruling during the day, and the other at night. Hera angrily interceded, which was what Diana had planned, and using Hermes' staff she transported herself to Mount Olympus to face Hera alone. She warned that she would make Hera regret what she had done to her mother before returning to Earth. Unfortunately, by the time she had returned, Hades had kidnapped Zola with the warning that Diana would need to make good on her bargain or Zola and her child would die.[19]
(For the record, Marston and Olive Byrne’s son, Byrne Marston, who is an 83-year-old retired obstetrician, thinks that when Marston talked about the importance of submission, he meant it only metaphorically. “I never saw anything like that in our house,” he told me. “He didn’t tie the ladies up to the bedpost. He’d never have gotten away with it.”)
This section of the history takes place during the New 52, between the events of Flashpoint and DC Rebirth. It was later revealed that much of Wonder Woman's history from this time was an elaborate illusion created by the Gods of Olympus to keep her away from Paradise Island. All or part of this section may have been part of that illusion and no longer valid in Rebirth.
“Closeup, full length figure of WW. Do some careful chaining here—Mars’s men are experts! Put a metal collar on WW with a chain running off from the panel, as though she were chained in the line of prisoners. Have her hands clasped together at her breast with double bands on her wrists, her Amazon bracelets and another set. Between these runs a short chain, about the length of a handcuff chain—this is what compels her to clasp her hands together. Then put another, heavier, larger chain between her wrist bands which hangs in a long loop to just above her knees. At her ankles show a pair of arms and hands, coming from out of the panel, clasping about her ankles. This whole panel will lose its point and spoil the story unless these chains are drawn exactly as described here.”
Writer Gerry Conway brought Steve Trevor back to life again in issue #271 (September 1980).[16] Following Diana's renunciation of her role as Wonder Woman, a version of Steve Trevor from an undisclosed portion of the Multiverse accidentally made the transition to Earth-One. With Diana's memory erased by the Mists of Nepenthe, the new Steve again crash-landed and arrived at Paradise Island. After reclaiming the title of Wonder Woman, Diana returned to Military Intelligence, working with Trevor and re-joined by supporting characters Etta Candy and General Darnell.[9]
The second storyline focuses on Wonder Woman's quest to rescue Zola from Hades, who had abducted her and taken her to Hell at the end of the sixth issue of the series.[69][70][71][72] The male Amazons are introduced and their origin story is revealed- the Amazons used to infrequently invade the ships coming near the island and force themselves on the sailors, and then kill them. After nine months, the birth of the female children are highly celebrated and inducted into the proper ranks of the Amazons while the male children are rejected. In order to save the children from being killed by the Amazons, Hephaestus trades them with the Amazons in exchange for weapons.[69]
After the disappointing downward trend of quality for this series, this volume was a somewhat refreshing addition. Though the plot was rather basic and a bit nonsensical at times, overall it was a decent enough addition to the series. The artwork is solid and makes the story more engaging. This volume also includes Wonder Woman Annual #2, which as a fan of the Star Sapphires I enjoyed. However, the ending to this arc was incredibly rushed and told in a way that completely removed any sense of su ...more
The Olympian Gods are featured in Injustice: Gods Among Us. In Wonder Woman's ending, Zeus and the Olympian Gods fear that what happened in the Regime's reality might happen in their own and begin a campaign to wipe out all the metahumans. Wonder Woman and her Amazons start a war against the Olympian Gods in rebellion for what they have done to the other metahumans and Zeus and the others are ultimately defeated with the Amazons becoming the new rulers in their place. Additionally, Ares appears as playable villain character and Athena appears briefly during Wonder Woman's fighting intro scene.
Would DC Comics introduce Diana's twin brother only to dispatch him so soon? And would he be defeated by Diana, after being manipulated by the Dark Gods? We would wager that Jason sees reason at some point - Diana's greatest superpower is love, compassion, and truth, after all - but anything is possible. Especially with the final splash page promising a war between gods that lives up to the name.
Wonder Woman engaged the First Born, but he quickly gained the advantage and attempted to kill Zeke. However, War challenged the First Born to a fight while Wonder Woman recovered. Then, Wonder Woman grabbed a spear and impaled both Ares and the First Born. As he died, Ares congratulated Wonder Woman for being a great warrior. Wonder Woman spared the First Born's life and went with Hades to take Ares' body to the River Styx.[36]

Voiced by Keri Russell. A movie based on the storyline written by George Perez, Gods and Mortals. This movie shows Wonder Woman's origins and how she decided to operate outside of Themyscira. Long time ago, there was a war between Ares and Hippolyta, and Hippolyta had the advantage, and was about to kill Ares, but then Hera told her not to kill Ares, but the deed, done by Ares, would not go unnoticed. From there on the Amazons got their own Island, by a request from Hippolyta, where they kept Ares a prisoner. Years further, Hippolyta wished for a child, and she made a child out of clay praying for the gods to make it a child. The next morning she wakes up and sees that a little child is in front of her. She was named Diana.
This volume of James Robinson's run on Wonder Woman shows signs that all the good faith DC comics gain from fans is slowly becoming disappointing. This is very troubling seeing how I have enjoyed James Robinson's writing in many other comic book series. I do agree with many of the other reviewers this volume has some really great art but the story is at times flawed or mediocre. My biggest gripe is with the character of Jason. To me it just felt like throughout this arc of the story they mad Jas ...more

A sharpshooter and ally of Steve Trevor.[48] On his role, Bremner said, "I play a character who's enlisted by Wonder Woman to help save the world as part of a small, unlikely band". Describing his character, Bremner stated "He's a shellshocked soldier who's been discharged from the war and is brought back to help on a secret mission".[50] On working with Jenkins, Bremner commented, "Patty Jenkins is a force of nature. She has fantastic vision, strength and enthusiasm, which is completely infectious and motivates a cast and crew of thousands to really go beyond themselves."[51]


She is able to astrally project herself into various lands of myth. Her physical body reacts to whatever happens to her on the mythical astral plane, leaving her body cut, bruised, or sometimes strengthened once her mind and body are reunited. She can apparently leave the planet through meditation and did this once to rescue Artemis while she was in Hell.[188]

Aphrodite All-Star Comics #8 (December 1941) Aphrodite is the Goddess of Love and Beauty who is named after the goddess of the same name. In the 1940s, Aphrodite was Wonder Woman's patron goddess. Later, Athena joined her as Diana's main patron. Post-Crisis, Aphrodite was joined by Athena, Artemis, Hestia, Demeter, and Hermes as Wonder Woman's patrons, though she most often abstained from interacting with the amazons. Post-Crisis, Aphrodite's role was severely minimized, appearing as a faceless, beautiful naked woman. Post-Rebirth, Aphrodite appeared as an ally to Wonder Woman in the form of a dove. It is unknown if Aphrodite continues to serve as patron of the amazons.
Robinson's run has not been inspiring and, while I'd argue that this is better than his earlier two volumes - in that there's at least an attempt at some characterisation amidst the fighting - it's still not really enough. The main problem is the rather uninteresting villains, generic manifestations of war, chaos, and so on, whose powers don't even seem terribly consistent. Plus, Jason gets a bunch of new powers, that essentially allow him to do whatever the plot requires so long as he can think ...more
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